Posts Tagged ‘history’

The Trail to Modern Humanity

Posted: September 20, 2018 in science
Tags: , , ,

This information was gleaned from the science and tech division of the Daily Mail, as are the artists renditions and graphs you will see in this article.

 

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Hybrid Neanderthal love child is found in a cave in Siberia: Teenage daughter of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father who lived 50,000 years ago reveals how humans’ ape-like cousins frequently interbred!  

A prehistoric 13-year-old girl who lived 50,000 years ago was the love child of two separate species of ancient human ancestor, according to a new DNA analysis of her remains.

A study of a tiny bone fragment found in a cave in Russia shows the teenager had a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father, giving fresh insight into how the now-extinct species interacted.

The find suggests that our ape-like cousins mated far more frequently than researchers thought, according to archaeologists.

Neanderthals and Denisovans share a common ancestor with humans and roamed Eurasia as far back as 400,000 years ago having migrated from Africa.

The pair of human-like species then intermingled with modern humans when they arrived on the continent 40,000 years ago, with members of three species sometimes crossbreeding.

This means that tiny amounts of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA can be found in our genome today! As much as 2% of our DNA was passed on to us from Neanderthals.

Research also shows that two modern genomes, one from Oceana and another from East Asia have distinct Denisovan ancestry.

“Previous studies that Neanderthals and Denisovans must have occasionally had children together,” said study coauthor Viviane Slon of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

“But I never thought we would be so lucky as to find an actual offspring of the two groups.”

Archaeologists came to their finding after sequencing the DNA of bone found in the Denisova Cave in Siberia’s Altai Mountains.

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The ancient individual is only represented by a single fragment so small that researchers call it a ‘bone needle’.

‘The fragment is part of a long bone, and we can estimate that this individual was at least 13 years old,” said Dr. Bence Viola, an archaeologist at the University of Toronto who was not involved in the study.

After sequencing the genome of the young girl, scientists found she was the child of a Neanderthal mother and Denisovan father – putting her among the first specimens to show direct evidence the species mixed.

“An interesting aspect of this genome is that it allows us to learn things about two populations – the Neanderthals from the mother’s side, and the Denisovans from the father’s side,” said co-author Dr. Fabrizio Mafessoni.

Thousands of ancient hominin bones were uncovered in the Denisova Cave in 2012, including the 120,000-year-old toe bone of a Neanderthal and the first ever evidence of a Denisovan – the phalanx of a child who lived between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago.

It is commonly believed that a common ancestor of the two species migrated from Africa to Eurasia between 400,000 and 300,000 years ago and then split.

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The traditional “Out of Africa” model suggests that modern humans evolved in Africa and then left in a single wave around 60,000 years ago.

The model often holds once modern humans left the continent, a brief period of interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred.

This explains why individuals of European and Asian heritage today still have ancient human DNA.

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There are many theories as to what drove the downfall of the Neanderthals.

Experts have suggested that early humans may have carried tropical diseases with them from Africa that wiped out their ape-like cousins.

Others claim that plummeting temperatures due to climate change wiped out the Neanderthals.

The predominant theory is that early humans killed off the Neanderthal through competition for food and habitat.

How the story is changing in light of new research

Recent findings suggest that the ‘Out of Africa’ theory does not tell the full story of our ancestors.

Instead, multiple, smaller movements of humans out of Africa beginning 120,000 years ago were then followed by a major migration 60,000 years ago.

Most of our DNA is made up of this latter group, but the earlier migrations, also known as “dispersals”, are still evident.

This explains recent studies of early human remains which have been found in the far reaches of Asia dating back further than 60,000 years.

For example, H. sapiens remains have been found at multiple sites in southern and central China that have been dated to between 70,000 and 120,000 years ago.

Other recent finds show that modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Australia prior to 60,000 years ago.

Based on these studies, humans could not have come in a single wave from Africa around this time, studies have found.

Instead, the origin of man suggests that modern humans developed in multiple regions around the world.

The theory claims that groups of pre-human ancestors made their way out of Africa and spread across parts of Europe and the Middle East.

(I support the above hypothesis, as I have done other studies that support the multiple group theory! Opinion by John love)

From here the species developed into modern humans in several places at once.

The argument is by a new analysis of a 260,000-year-old skull found in Dali County in China’s Shaanxi Province.

The skull suggests that early humans migrated to Asia, where they evolved modern human traits and then moved back to Africa.

 

The Times today is taking the rare step of publishing an anonymous Op-Ed essay. We have done so at the request of the author, a senior official in the Trump administration whose identity is known to us and whose job would be jeopardized by its disclosure. We believe publishing this essay anonymously is the only way to deliver an important perspective to our readers.I work for the president but like-minded colleagues and I have vowed to thwart parts of his agenda and his worst inclinations.

President Trump is facing a test of his presidency unlike any faced by a modern American leader.

It’s not just that the special counsel looms large. Or that the country is bitterly divided over Mr. Trump’s leadership. Or even that his party might well lose the House to an opposition hellbent on his downfall.
The dilemma — which he does not fully grasp — is that many of the senior officials in his own administration are working diligently from within to frustrate parts of his agenda and his worst inclinations.

I would know. I am one of them.
To be clear, ours is not the popular “resistance” of the left. We want the administration to succeed and think that many of its policies have already made America safer and more prosperous.
But we believe our first duty is to this country, and the president continues to act in a manner that is detrimental to the health of our republic.

That is why many Trump appointees have vowed to do what we can to preserve our democratic institutions while thwarting Mr. Trump’s more misguided impulses until he is out of office.

The root of the problem is the president’s amorality. Anyone who works with him knows he is not moored to any discernible first principles that guide his decision making.

Although he was elected as a Republican, the president shows little affinity for ideals long espoused by conservatives: free minds, free markets, and free people. At best, he has invoked these ideals in scripted settings. At worst, he has attacked them outright. In addition to his mass-marketing of the notion that the press is the “enemy of the people,” President Trump’s impulses are generally anti-trade and anti-democratic.
Don’t get me wrong. There are bright spots that the near-ceaseless negative coverage of the administration fails to capture: effective deregulation, historic tax reform, a more robust military and more.
But these successes have come despite — not because of — the president’s leadership style, which is impetuous, adversarial, petty and ineffective.
From the White House to executive branch departments and agencies, senior officials will privately admit their daily disbelief at the commander in chief’s comments and actions. Most are working to insulate their operations from his whims.

Meetings with him veer off topic and off the rails, he engages in repetitive rants, and his impulsiveness results in half-baked, ill-informed and occasionally reckless decisions that have to be walked back.
“There is literally no telling whether he might change his mind from one minute to the next,” a top official complained to me recently, exasperated by an Oval Office meeting at which the president flip-flopped on a major policy decision he’d made only a week earlier.

The erratic behavior would be more concerning if it weren’t for unsung heroes in and around the White House. Some of his aides have been cast as villains by the media. But in private, they have gone to great lengths to keep bad decisions contained to the West Wing, though they are clearly not always successful.

It may be cold comfort in this chaotic era, but Americans should know that there are adults in the room. We fully recognize what is happening. And we are trying to do what’s right even when Donald Trump won’t.
The result is a two-track presidency.
Take foreign policy: In public and in private, President Trump shows a preference for autocrats and dictators, such as President Vladimir Putin of Russia and North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, and displays little genuine appreciation for the ties that bind us to allied, like-minded nations.

Astute observers have noted, though, that the rest of the administration is operating on another track, one where countries like Russia are called out for meddling and punished accordingly, and where allies around the world are engaged as peers rather than ridiculed as rivals.
On Russia, for instance, the president was reluctant to expel so many of Mr. Putin’s spies as punishment for the poisoning of a former Russian spy in Britain. He complained for weeks about senior staff members letting him get boxed into further confrontation with Russia, and he expressed frustration that the United States continued to impose sanctions on the country for its malign behavior. But his national security team knew better — such actions had to be taken, to hold Moscow accountable.
This isn’t the work of the so-called deep state. It’s the work of the steady state.

Given the instability many witnessed, there were early whispers within the cabinet of invoking the 25th Amendment, which would start a complex process for removing the president. But no one wanted to precipitate a constitutional crisis. So we will do what we can to steer the administration in the right direction until — one way or another — it’s over.
The bigger concern is not what Mr. Trump has done to the presidency but rather what we as a nation have allowed him to do to us. We have sunk low with him and allowed our discourse to be stripped of civility.
Senator John McCain put it best in his farewell letter. All Americans should heed his words and break free of the tribalism trap, with the high aim of uniting through our shared values and love of this great nation.
We may no longer have Senator McCain. But we will always have his example — a lodestar for restoring honor to public life and our national dialogue. Mr. Trump may fear such honorable men, but we should revere them.

There is a quiet resistance within the administration of people choosing to put country first. But the real difference will be made by everyday citizens rising above politics, reaching across the aisle and resolving to shed the labels in favor of a single one: Americans.
The writer is a senior official in the Trump administration.

This is an excerpt from an article written by Noah Bierman and published in the L.A. Times!

“Sen. John McCain’s decision to exclude President Trump from his funeral is an extraordinary moment on its own; a posthumous rebuke from an American icon that regarded the presidency as sacred, and believed its current occupant defiles that office!

Yet Trump’s exclusion from such high-profile events of mourning and celebration — where American presidents are typically counted on to stand in for an entire nation — is emerging as a pattern over his 19 months in office.
In April, Trump was asked to stay away from the funeral of Barbara Bush, wife to one president and mother of another, leaving it to former Presidents Clinton and Obama to serve as national consolers to the Bush family. In December, he opted to skip the president’s traditional attendance at the annual Kennedy Center Honors gala after several of the artists being feted threatened a boycott.
The British royal family dispensed with inviting foreign dignitaries to Prince Harry and Meghan Markle’s wedding in May partly to avoid having to invite Trump, whom Markle had attacked as “divisive” and “misogynistic.”

End of Excerpt!

In the words of John Love for the rest of the article, there are several more examples, but two funerals and a wedding pretty much sum up how Trump is viewed here and abroad!

Trump got into office by using fear of race, religion, resentment, insults, and lashing the immigrant to his whipping post for most of our problems, anyone not Christian for the rest!

This is indicative of how he is seen, and an embarrassment for the U.S. on the world scene and yes, here at home. Despite what Trump says, which should always be taken with a grain of salt, he is alienating our long-time allies, making a world war more likely again, and in the long term his bullying, because that is what it is, using tariffs to do so, is going to backfire on our economy. Trump has always been a bully and dreams of being large and in charge of the world! Beware your support you are only endangering yourselves.

When has the United Nations needed to castigate the United States for human rights violations before Trump? Never in our history before is the answer! Why would the United States, a champion of human rights pull out of the U.N. Human Right Council? Because it does not go along with Trumps hate and fear policies, think about it!

So our allies exclude him from what is normally a President’s privilege, and a President’s family and Senator from his own party have excluded him from attending their funerals. Trump, exhibiting his total lack of class, refused to lower the flag at half mast for John McCain until he was lambasted with complaints from both political parties and veterans groups! Again, think about it, is this the man you want representing you to the rest of the world, or a man you believe is really interested in helping anyone but himself? Do you get it now?

Trump has threatened to withdraw the United States from NATO, nearly broke apart the G7 alliance at the recent Quebec summit, has effectively surrendered economic leadership across the Pacific region to China by withdrawing from the Trans-Pacific Partnership and has withdrawn from both the Iran nuclear deal and the Paris Climate Agreement. All of our partners in trade and NATO are telling us this is a major blunder for both global endangerments from climate change, global trade, and a swift shift in power away from the U.S.!

Donald Trump’s administration has also shown a clear and obvious disdain for human rights. To that end, he has gone so far as to withdraw the United States from the U.N. Human Rights Council. Set off by the fact that the United Nations has accused the United States of human rights violations! Now let that sink in. According to my research, and others, our country, led by many states who are leading the race in human rights violations, on the rise since Trump became president! We are actually going back in time, and no, that is not a good thing! Trump is trying to take us globally back to a white supremacy we have been trying to abolish for decades. All you have to do is watch speeches he gives overseas to see that!
He announces his disdain for all news except Fox, refusing to take questions from CNN at an international press conference calling them fake news. This is dangerous for many reasons. One, Fox is definitely not the news outlet you want to hold up to the world as an example of great or even good press. Fox’s record for telling the whole truth is only 10%, totally false 29% of the time, even partly true only comes out to around 21%. Now, this is Pundit Fact or Politifact, and Snopes! My own research, which I spend way too much time doing, I admit, also suggests to me that these percentages are close to the actual facts of the matter.
Think this through; what kind of world would we live in if we only got news Trump liked? Especially when his pick of true news has the worst record for truth in America, maybe even the planet, excluding government-run news agencies like Pravda! This kind of antics on the international stage, ranting about fake news and refusing to call on those he does not like gives dictators and other strongman leadership entities who want to stifle or exterminate free press a green light from the U.S. leadership! Especially when the GOP refuse to lead, and Sara is willing to prostitute herself to a world of lies and misdirection!
Trump’s own truth meter has a definite sway towards outright lies and half-truths at best. Trump tells the whole truth a measly 5% of the time. Mostly false 22% of the time, totally false 33% of the time, so it is no wonder Fox is his news network of choice. Trumps lies are so easy to find, that when my friends ask what lies, I cannot help but start laughing! This question tells me they have no clue, none, of what actually happens on a national or international level. Even if you only watch Fox, even they have to admit that Trump is a liar at times. All anyone has to do is tune in when a news anchor for Fox, Shepard Smith, is reporting on Trump to know something is dreadfully amiss with Trump and his leadership. I am surprised they have not found an excuse to fire the man. However he is someone they can point to on the Fox network who does tell the truth and actually reports the news instead of making it up, so maybe they feel this somehow legitimizes them!
In conclusion, you cannot keep hiding from facts. Please at least watch some PBS news programs to glean at least a semblance of what is really going on. They report news as it really happens; they do not try and spin it. Watch some C-Span, now that does take some patience, as you have to wade through a lot of really boring stuff to witness actual policy or law being enacted. Look at the congressional record. It belies most of what Trump tells you! Whatever you do, do not just watch Fox and people like Hannity because you will not actually know the truth. You cannot keep imagining that everyone else on the planet is wrong, and they have it right. And quit listening to people like that idiot from  Info Wars. You shouldn’t have to fact check to know that you are looking at a deranged serial liar, common sense will tell you that, even though Trump has reported stuff directly from his show! That alone should scare you half to death!

These are few excerpts from an article in the LA Times, with a few comments of my own thrown in! It was long so I am going to try and shorten it so some of you might read it. Actually nothing I have not said before, but here goes again!
President Trump stood before a crowd of small-business owners at a hotel last week and said that his administration’s economic policy could “be summed up in three very beautiful words … jobs, jobs, jobs.” But when it comes to jobs, Trump is like the wealthy heir who, as the saying goes, was born on third base and thinks he hit a triple.
Unemployment rates for blacks, Latinos and all Americans began a steady decline in late 2009 that has continued since Trump took office. The same is true with the plunge in first-time claims for unemployment benefits.
And the 3.4 million jobs created in the 18 months from December 2016 through May of this year isn’t such an unbelievable number. The U.S. economy added 3.7 million net new jobs in the 18 months immediately before that.
It was Obama administration policies plus Federal Reserve policies that engineered a recovery from the depths of the Great Recession and that continues. The tax break given to the rich has kept it going, but that will not last as the break for the middle class disappears. Also, inflation has been on the rise since Trump took office and wages have not increased even though there are more jobs, so the average worker makes less, not more!
So, Trump needs to also thank Obama for the current economy, but that is never going to happen! However, we the people need to look at the figures, figures that are easily accessed if you actually care to know the facts, and realize that you have to dig out the truth for yourself! If you have not figured it out, Trump is a liar, plain and simple! To be fair, he has kept the momentum Obama created going, but we have created more debt in the last year than any time in history and we are still creating more, and that will bite us in the ass!

 

History, who has not heard me harp about that! Well let’s look at history, I did the research for you, and unlike your politicians, I am not a prevaricator!

The Great Depression (1929 to 1939) was caused by huge wealth and income inequality in our country. Combined with extensive new tariffs being imposed. Who was at the helm when this occurred, you ask? Herbert Hoover, a Republican was! Who dug us out of the largest most destructive depression in history? Well WWII put it on hold as jobs were available for the war effort, so some people say that was what ended the depression. However for that to be true we would have had to stay in a state of world war perpetually! Plus it was illusory as the war put us in extreme debt, which as you know causes its own problems. Same reason our debt is so large now, we have been at war 222 years out of 239 years since we have existed. This means we have only been at peace with the world for 20% of our history! So no, not the war! Roosevelt started the New Deal, but it was put on hold during the war, and Roosevelt passed away before his new proposals for post-war America got enacted!, He was responsible for new ideas and a successful template! Harry Truman was actually responsible for continuing the New Deal, implementing the Marshall Plan, NATO, and using United Nations veto more than any President to fight communism and the Soviet Union! He did continue Roosevelt’s ideas and kept the Great Depression at bay, and more infamously was one of the world’s leaders instrumental in starting the Cold War. So the Great Depression started by a Republican was left for two Democrats to fix! Wealth and income inequality, new tariffs imposed, sound familiar? How about exactly what Trump is doing right now!

The Great Recession (2007 to 2009) was started by banks gambling with investor’s money and going for the quick profit! That meant making dangerous and very risky investments and loans! Big business and Wall Street were concentrating on big bonuses and profits, risking their customer’s money, and not caring! Who was at the helm during this disaster, yet another Republican, George W. Bush! Who got us out of this disaster, regardless of what you have been told, it was President Obama, and he did it without any help whatsoever from Republicans. Did it cost us, you bet! Were the steps President Obama took necessary, yes they were! It was the biggest economic disaster since the Great Depression, in full swing when Obama took office and gone before he left office. You can hyperventilate all you want, but this is history, and will be recorded as such, no matter what you wish to be true! You will notice that the recession was in full swing when Obama took office, and if you look at when the recession ended, it was in Obama’s first year as President. And the economy, jobs, and unemployment all steadily got better during his Presidency, regardless of what the Liar in Chief or his minions told you! It is all in the public record, plain and simple, all you have to do is learn to read and not watch, well, you know!

So if you go back up and look at what I just said caused the Great Depression, it appears Trump has decided to create exactly the conditions that caused it, of course blaming everyone and everything around him as he leads us into either the next Great Depression or a nuclear war. Something to look forward to! If you look at real history, the record of the U.S. economy, every time we have a depression or major recession Republicans are almost always in charge. There is always huge wealth and income inequality, a suffering middle class or no middle class, and the debt rockets into the stratosphere. Republicans always campaign for a balanced budget, then get in office and run the debt up by enormous leaps and bounds. Has always been thus, lie, then give huge tax breaks or loopholes to the rich, make laws that only favor the already rich and Wall Street, and you get a recession, every damn time. History, it is all there; all you have to do is crack open a book or two and start reading. Not some book by some crackpot, I am talking about the dull, painstaking business of reading documents, looking at the debt and deficit and see who actually ran it up and why! You always have to look at why. Was it war, tax cuts, trade, and what dates, not what some lying politician told you! History, it does not lie, people just lie about it!