Posts Tagged ‘education’

The Trail to Modern Humanity

Posted: September 20, 2018 in science
Tags: , , ,

This information was gleaned from the science and tech division of the Daily Mail, as are the artists renditions and graphs you will see in this article.

 

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Hybrid Neanderthal love child is found in a cave in Siberia: Teenage daughter of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father who lived 50,000 years ago reveals how humans’ ape-like cousins frequently interbred!  

A prehistoric 13-year-old girl who lived 50,000 years ago was the love child of two separate species of ancient human ancestor, according to a new DNA analysis of her remains.

A study of a tiny bone fragment found in a cave in Russia shows the teenager had a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father, giving fresh insight into how the now-extinct species interacted.

The find suggests that our ape-like cousins mated far more frequently than researchers thought, according to archaeologists.

Neanderthals and Denisovans share a common ancestor with humans and roamed Eurasia as far back as 400,000 years ago having migrated from Africa.

The pair of human-like species then intermingled with modern humans when they arrived on the continent 40,000 years ago, with members of three species sometimes crossbreeding.

This means that tiny amounts of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA can be found in our genome today! As much as 2% of our DNA was passed on to us from Neanderthals.

Research also shows that two modern genomes, one from Oceana and another from East Asia have distinct Denisovan ancestry.

“Previous studies that Neanderthals and Denisovans must have occasionally had children together,” said study coauthor Viviane Slon of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

“But I never thought we would be so lucky as to find an actual offspring of the two groups.”

Archaeologists came to their finding after sequencing the DNA of bone found in the Denisova Cave in Siberia’s Altai Mountains.

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The ancient individual is only represented by a single fragment so small that researchers call it a ‘bone needle’.

‘The fragment is part of a long bone, and we can estimate that this individual was at least 13 years old,” said Dr. Bence Viola, an archaeologist at the University of Toronto who was not involved in the study.

After sequencing the genome of the young girl, scientists found she was the child of a Neanderthal mother and Denisovan father – putting her among the first specimens to show direct evidence the species mixed.

“An interesting aspect of this genome is that it allows us to learn things about two populations – the Neanderthals from the mother’s side, and the Denisovans from the father’s side,” said co-author Dr. Fabrizio Mafessoni.

Thousands of ancient hominin bones were uncovered in the Denisova Cave in 2012, including the 120,000-year-old toe bone of a Neanderthal and the first ever evidence of a Denisovan – the phalanx of a child who lived between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago.

It is commonly believed that a common ancestor of the two species migrated from Africa to Eurasia between 400,000 and 300,000 years ago and then split.

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The traditional “Out of Africa” model suggests that modern humans evolved in Africa and then left in a single wave around 60,000 years ago.

The model often holds once modern humans left the continent, a brief period of interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred.

This explains why individuals of European and Asian heritage today still have ancient human DNA.

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There are many theories as to what drove the downfall of the Neanderthals.

Experts have suggested that early humans may have carried tropical diseases with them from Africa that wiped out their ape-like cousins.

Others claim that plummeting temperatures due to climate change wiped out the Neanderthals.

The predominant theory is that early humans killed off the Neanderthal through competition for food and habitat.

How the story is changing in light of new research

Recent findings suggest that the ‘Out of Africa’ theory does not tell the full story of our ancestors.

Instead, multiple, smaller movements of humans out of Africa beginning 120,000 years ago were then followed by a major migration 60,000 years ago.

Most of our DNA is made up of this latter group, but the earlier migrations, also known as “dispersals”, are still evident.

This explains recent studies of early human remains which have been found in the far reaches of Asia dating back further than 60,000 years.

For example, H. sapiens remains have been found at multiple sites in southern and central China that have been dated to between 70,000 and 120,000 years ago.

Other recent finds show that modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Australia prior to 60,000 years ago.

Based on these studies, humans could not have come in a single wave from Africa around this time, studies have found.

Instead, the origin of man suggests that modern humans developed in multiple regions around the world.

The theory claims that groups of pre-human ancestors made their way out of Africa and spread across parts of Europe and the Middle East.

(I support the above hypothesis, as I have done other studies that support the multiple group theory! Opinion by John love)

From here the species developed into modern humans in several places at once.

The argument is by a new analysis of a 260,000-year-old skull found in Dali County in China’s Shaanxi Province.

The skull suggests that early humans migrated to Asia, where they evolved modern human traits and then moved back to Africa.

 

From the Willamette Athletic Director;

Congratulations on your selection to the Willamette University Athletic Hall of Fame! The Bearcats have an impressive history of accomplishments by our teams and student-athletes and our committee felt as though yours were at the top of that list. We are hopeful that you can join us for the induction ceremony on Friday, October 12th, and stay for some of the other exciting activities that are happening on campus as part of Family Weekend. Here are some additional details with more to come later this week. The ceremony will take place in the Cat Cavern on the second floor of the Putnam University Center on Friday, October 12th. There will be a cocktail reception starting at 6:30 pm with dinner and the program to start at approximately 7:00 pm. We hope to introduce all inductees during halftime of the football game on Saturday, October 13th. The game kicks off at 1:30 pm. All inductees and their families will be invited to a pre-game tailgate inside the stadium.

His job
Foster was director of behavioral health at the Rosebud Indian Health Service Hospital, a 38-bed hospital on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in Rosebud, S.D., an area marked by high unemployment, poverty, and substance abuse. “We are a beautiful place in terms of the hills, trees, grass, rivers, animals, people and culture, but we are a very difficult place in socioeconomic terms,” says Foster. With no psychiatrists on the reservation, Foster and the reservation’s other four psychologists — including his wife, Becky — earned master’s degrees in psychopharmacology to help improve care. By both working and living on the reservation, Foster sees firsthand how his interventions improve people’s quality of life. “I find that very gratifying,” he says.

A welcoming spirit

After the Fosters’ first four children grew up, the couple adopted seven special-needs children. Their oldest son is 40, while their youngest children are 6-year-old twin girls. Balancing work and child-rearing often require Daniel Foster to remind himself to breathe throughout the day. “I feel like a one-legged man at a kickboxing tournament a good deal of the time,” he says.

A handball prodigy

Foster competed as a member of the U.S. National Handball Team, including in the Pan Am and Olympic Games, from 1971 to 1982. Foster, who had played football and basketball in college, for which he is being honored next month, came to handball as a fluke while he was in the Army in the early 1970s: Members of a handball team spied Foster working out one day and invited him to join them. He was a natural. “The coach ended up inviting me to compete in the nationals with the team in New York and we won the national championship,” he says. He has earned several National Gold Medals in handball since, the latest in 2002.

Giving back

Foster decided to become a psychologist when he witnessed how many fellow soldiers suffered psychological wounds much like those American Indians bore from oppression. To contribute to the profession on the national level, Foster is a member of APA’s Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs and attends the annual meeting of the Society of Indian Psychologists — with all of his young children. Psychology, he believes, is the career he was born for. “I have truly enjoyed listening to and being a part of people’s life narrative,” he says.

Dan Foster is a lifelong friend and an example to me of what we should all aspire to be like. We met in the 8th grade in Council Idaho, a small logging and ranching community. He was the preacher’s kid and I was the new kid with no parents, so we formed a don’t mess with us society and became best friends. Dan, being of kind heart, probably does not remember it that way, but being large for my age, the tough guy of the class and I were having it out, so I needed friends. To be fair, I and this tough guy later became very good friends! I never won any of our fights, but I never gave up and he respected that, so finally decided we should be buddies, way easier that way!

Dan was always more concerned with others than himself, he is someone with whom friendship is an honor! He did not give me permission to post this, as he would have most likely, knowing him, said no! So I just went the hell ahead because some of his classmates might not know about some of his accomplishments. I got most of the information other than the hall of fame info from this website: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/06/random.aspx

Trump has threatened to withdraw the United States from NATO, nearly broke apart the G7 alliance at the recent Quebec summit, has effectively surrendered economic leadership across the Pacific region to China by withdrawing from the Trans-Pacific Partnership and has withdrawn from both the Iran nuclear deal and the Paris Climate Agreement. All of our partners in trade and NATO are telling us this is a major blunder for both global endangerments from climate change, global trade, and a swift shift in power away from the U.S.!

Donald Trump’s administration has also shown a clear and obvious disdain for human rights. To that end, he has gone so far as to withdraw the United States from the U.N. Human Rights Council. Set off by the fact that the United Nations has accused the United States of human rights violations! Now let that sink in. According to my research, and others, our country, led by many states who are leading the race in human rights violations, on the rise since Trump became president! We are actually going back in time, and no, that is not a good thing! Trump is trying to take us globally back to a white supremacy we have been trying to abolish for decades. All you have to do is watch speeches he gives overseas to see that!
He announces his disdain for all news except Fox, refusing to take questions from CNN at an international press conference calling them fake news. This is dangerous for many reasons. One, Fox is definitely not the news outlet you want to hold up to the world as an example of great or even good press. Fox’s record for telling the whole truth is only 10%, totally false 29% of the time, even partly true only comes out to around 21%. Now, this is Pundit Fact or Politifact, and Snopes! My own research, which I spend way too much time doing, I admit, also suggests to me that these percentages are close to the actual facts of the matter.
Think this through; what kind of world would we live in if we only got news Trump liked? Especially when his pick of true news has the worst record for truth in America, maybe even the planet, excluding government-run news agencies like Pravda! This kind of antics on the international stage, ranting about fake news and refusing to call on those he does not like gives dictators and other strongman leadership entities who want to stifle or exterminate free press a green light from the U.S. leadership! Especially when the GOP refuse to lead, and Sara is willing to prostitute herself to a world of lies and misdirection!
Trump’s own truth meter has a definite sway towards outright lies and half-truths at best. Trump tells the whole truth a measly 5% of the time. Mostly false 22% of the time, totally false 33% of the time, so it is no wonder Fox is his news network of choice. Trumps lies are so easy to find, that when my friends ask what lies, I cannot help but start laughing! This question tells me they have no clue, none, of what actually happens on a national or international level. Even if you only watch Fox, even they have to admit that Trump is a liar at times. All anyone has to do is tune in when a news anchor for Fox, Shepard Smith, is reporting on Trump to know something is dreadfully amiss with Trump and his leadership. I am surprised they have not found an excuse to fire the man. However he is someone they can point to on the Fox network who does tell the truth and actually reports the news instead of making it up, so maybe they feel this somehow legitimizes them!
In conclusion, you cannot keep hiding from facts. Please at least watch some PBS news programs to glean at least a semblance of what is really going on. They report news as it really happens; they do not try and spin it. Watch some C-Span, now that does take some patience, as you have to wade through a lot of really boring stuff to witness actual policy or law being enacted. Look at the congressional record. It belies most of what Trump tells you! Whatever you do, do not just watch Fox and people like Hannity because you will not actually know the truth. You cannot keep imagining that everyone else on the planet is wrong, and they have it right. And quit listening to people like that idiot from  Info Wars. You shouldn’t have to fact check to know that you are looking at a deranged serial liar, common sense will tell you that, even though Trump has reported stuff directly from his show! That alone should scare you half to death!

History, who has not heard me harp about that! Well let’s look at history, I did the research for you, and unlike your politicians, I am not a prevaricator!

The Great Depression (1929 to 1939) was caused by huge wealth and income inequality in our country. Combined with extensive new tariffs being imposed. Who was at the helm when this occurred, you ask? Herbert Hoover, a Republican was! Who dug us out of the largest most destructive depression in history? Well WWII put it on hold as jobs were available for the war effort, so some people say that was what ended the depression. However for that to be true we would have had to stay in a state of world war perpetually! Plus it was illusory as the war put us in extreme debt, which as you know causes its own problems. Same reason our debt is so large now, we have been at war 222 years out of 239 years since we have existed. This means we have only been at peace with the world for 20% of our history! So no, not the war! Roosevelt started the New Deal, but it was put on hold during the war, and Roosevelt passed away before his new proposals for post-war America got enacted!, He was responsible for new ideas and a successful template! Harry Truman was actually responsible for continuing the New Deal, implementing the Marshall Plan, NATO, and using United Nations veto more than any President to fight communism and the Soviet Union! He did continue Roosevelt’s ideas and kept the Great Depression at bay, and more infamously was one of the world’s leaders instrumental in starting the Cold War. So the Great Depression started by a Republican was left for two Democrats to fix! Wealth and income inequality, new tariffs imposed, sound familiar? How about exactly what Trump is doing right now!

The Great Recession (2007 to 2009) was started by banks gambling with investor’s money and going for the quick profit! That meant making dangerous and very risky investments and loans! Big business and Wall Street were concentrating on big bonuses and profits, risking their customer’s money, and not caring! Who was at the helm during this disaster, yet another Republican, George W. Bush! Who got us out of this disaster, regardless of what you have been told, it was President Obama, and he did it without any help whatsoever from Republicans. Did it cost us, you bet! Were the steps President Obama took necessary, yes they were! It was the biggest economic disaster since the Great Depression, in full swing when Obama took office and gone before he left office. You can hyperventilate all you want, but this is history, and will be recorded as such, no matter what you wish to be true! You will notice that the recession was in full swing when Obama took office, and if you look at when the recession ended, it was in Obama’s first year as President. And the economy, jobs, and unemployment all steadily got better during his Presidency, regardless of what the Liar in Chief or his minions told you! It is all in the public record, plain and simple, all you have to do is learn to read and not watch, well, you know!

So if you go back up and look at what I just said caused the Great Depression, it appears Trump has decided to create exactly the conditions that caused it, of course blaming everyone and everything around him as he leads us into either the next Great Depression or a nuclear war. Something to look forward to! If you look at real history, the record of the U.S. economy, every time we have a depression or major recession Republicans are almost always in charge. There is always huge wealth and income inequality, a suffering middle class or no middle class, and the debt rockets into the stratosphere. Republicans always campaign for a balanced budget, then get in office and run the debt up by enormous leaps and bounds. Has always been thus, lie, then give huge tax breaks or loopholes to the rich, make laws that only favor the already rich and Wall Street, and you get a recession, every damn time. History, it is all there; all you have to do is crack open a book or two and start reading. Not some book by some crackpot, I am talking about the dull, painstaking business of reading documents, looking at the debt and deficit and see who actually ran it up and why! You always have to look at why. Was it war, tax cuts, trade, and what dates, not what some lying politician told you! History, it does not lie, people just lie about it!

 

An international team of physicists from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of California, Berkeley, and University of Amsterdam, claim they have finally proven the existence of a new form of matter called excitonium, almost 50 years after it was first theorized. Upon studying non-doped crystals of the transition metal dichalcogenide titanium diselenide (1T-TiSe2),…

via Physicists Have Discovered A New Form Of Matter Called Excitonium — Sparkonit

Lightning is one of the most incredible natural phenomenons and there’s a lot we don’t know about it. Now, a study at Kyoto University, Japan has found that lightning strikes can set off photonuclear reactions in the atmosphere, and the gamma rays – emitted in lightning – react with the air to produce radioisotopes and…

via Lightning Creates Antimatter In The Atmosphere – And It’s Powerful Enough To Set Off Nuclear Reactions, Study Finds — Sparkonit

If you think you are smarter than everyone around you, you’re definitely not. If you have a colleague who thinks he is much better at his job than everyone, he is definitely not. Well, if you feel this way about yourself, or come across anyone who overestimates their own abilities the same way you do,…

via The Dunning-Kruger Effect: Why Incompetent People Think They’re Amazing — Sparkonit

Trumps tax bill is not a boon to you and I! It will put nothing in your pocket, not the middle class or the poor in America. Sure Trump promises it will put $4,000 dollars a year back in your pocket, but that is a bald faced lie. It is not only a lie, but this tax bill is going to cost you big time when you know the truth.

First off economists know that the lion’s share of the tax cut goes to corporations. Well who owns the lion’s share of stock in our corporations, the top 1% and maybe in lesser degree the top 10%! Those little pieces of stock you own are not going to get you squat! So who pays the taxes for corporations, shareholders do! Corporations themselves do not pay taxes, only people pay taxes, despite what a GOP controlled Supreme Court has told you corporations are not people, and only people pay taxes. So this tax cut makes the richest in our country richer, because as shareholders in all the major corporations they will pay a lot less in taxes! I mean that is what they all paid for when they bought their politicians!

You and I, well to start off with the $4,000 dollar boon to you and I is false, a lie. You might see $600 bucks. But in reality you will be paying through the nose. Where to do you think they are going to get the money to give to the rich, I’ll tell you where, from you and me. How, you ask? By getting rid of, or vastly downsizing Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, federal aid to education, food programs, and on and on. Why do you think they want to get rid of the Affordable Care Act so badly, it has nothing to do with healthcare, they could care less about your health! It is because it frees up billions of dollars for this gift to the rich. That is the whole reason the GOP exists right now is to get what the Koch brothers and their ilk paid for, a significantly lower tax on the rich and corporations. They Koch brothers just held a conference in Washington recently to complain about why the GOP has been so slow to get them what they paid for, and they were not even subtle about it! We will not even get into the estate tax, which only comes into play for the very rich, not your average Joe, farmer or rancher, as they would have you believe. It is all a lie that will cost you dearly, not only in your pocketbook, but also in lives as well!

You will notice while Obama was in office the GOP harped on the debt and the deficit constantly. How dangerous it was to increase the debt, and not to decrease the deficit. Even though President Obama did decrease the deficit more than any of the last five Presidents, but the GOP does not talk about that! What do you hear today from the GOP presently, absolutely nothing! The GOP does not talk about the debt and deficit at all! Why? Because this new tax plan and the Presidents budget will add tens of trillions of dollars to the debt! The tax plan alone would reduce federal revenues by $9.5 trillion over its first decade alone! It could increase the national debt by nearly 80 percent of gross domestic product by 2036! And the good ole trickle down theory is the only avenue to pay it back, which we know did not work for Reagan or Bush, or ever for that matter! Now Trump is not a populist. He could care less about the average Jack and Jill, he tells you lies everyday that he does, but lies are his stock in trade! He only cares about amassing power and wealth for himself, and that is all he cares about. Well, and being worshipped by one and all, but that in itself does not cost us anything but our sanity!

This is in response to a post about how Democrats were originally for slavery and were opposed to civil rights! Well I had to respond, actually a friend asked for my opinion, and she got a little more than she bargained for, I am sure! So here goes! 

If you look at history and the platforms of both parties they have completely switched ideologies since the days of Lincoln. So what used to be the democrats is actually represented by republicans, and vice-versa. It of course is not as simple as just switching names, but the Democratic Party of old does not exist as such anymore, has not probably in our lifetime! So what is claimed is accurate, just not accurate to ascribe those attributes to the current party. The democrats have lots of problems which they need to solve, but if you look at what Republicans are trying to do right now, for example getting rid of Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid, trying to completely shut down the education and environmental agencies in total, trying to open up open pit mining in the heart of the last remaining natural Salmon fishery, closing down or vastly reducing our park systems and opening them up to mining and oil interests, I cannot see this as in our interest. The premise of the Republican Party is a solid one, but Republicans now in power are not abiding by or even resembling such a premise. I used to be a staunch Republican, but when they became bought and paid for, I had to leave. Not saying there are not bought and paid for Democrats, but way less in my opinion. If you dig into social security, it is income deduction based, does not affect the debt, and would be solvent if left alone and not the Fed piggy bank. But employers, especially large ones, have to match the Soc. Sec. contribution. Now they figure all that in when deciding how much salary to pay an individual, along with 401k matching, health care, vacation time, etc. But that is the driving force to the GOP hatred of this particular program, and in other forms of imagined attacks on their bottom line tend to foment hatred for all healthcare programs! Why after seven or eight years did the Republicans not build their own healthcare bill instead of trying to shove a hastily thrown together bill down our throats in secret to try and fool us into thinking they had our interest at heart! Because they never intended to offer a healthcare plan. They thought we would let them  get rid of the ACA and then they would just ignore cries for a new program until it faded away!  Big business, pharmaceuticals, petroleum companies, and others, all make billions, even trillions in profit, and they need to keep increasing profit or their stockholders get nasty! So that is what is being legislated, not our needs or wants or desires. Politicians get their money for re-election from these sources so you and I do not figure into their machinations in congress anymore. We have always been a socialist democracy. Otherwise there would be no fire, police, emergency response teams, paramedics, interstate highways, and the list goes on. So you have to decide if backing a person who acts like a bully in a grade school sandbox, who lies every single day, tells you exactly what you want to hear but has no intention of actually doing any of it, who changes horses midstream on policy weekly, and who cannot let any slight go no matter how insignificant it is! So he undermines his own secretary, his cabinet members flee in disgust, almost all of his appointments are still empty, he has no takers, despite his blaming democrats or Obama for everything. Tillerson almost left this summer! The buck stops at the Presidents desk, but he does not know that! Sorry for going postal here, but I have a lot of pent up rage at what is going on. I spend long hours reading bills, studying history, and looking at foreign news, even Russian outlets along with British, Irish, etc., to try and get the real picture of our world and our place in it. We are not the jewel of the earth anymore, we are more like a cancer! Education and science are scoffed at right now, and we are going to be sorry for letting those two slip our grasp. We need to start paying attention to science and education again or we are going to fail as a country! Our esteem in the world by our peers has diminished by leaps and bounds. This is not my opinion, it is a fact! You cannot replace a scientist with multiple degrees with a used car salesmen in an agency based on science and expect him to make the right choices for our well being. I am talking about the Environmental Protection Agency, oh and NASA as well! Anyway, I will shut up now, but I was asked!

 

Note: These bills were posted by a friend of mine as bills we should be aware of! I looked them up, read them, and added the names of who was responsible for them. You will notice they are all Republicans. The most egregious in my opinion, although all are bad ideas, are the attempts to terminate the Environmental Protection Agency, Public vouchers to replace federal aid to education, termination of the Department of Education and the National Right to Work! This last item, regardless of the title, gives the employer the right to tell you that you have no rights! They will be able to dictate wages as they wish! It strips the work force of any power it might have had to protect itself! You need to pay attention to who and what you vote for because pretty soon the country you claim to love will not exist anymore! You will be working longer for less, your fishing grounds and salmon runs will be fouled with open pit mines! Your streams, lakes and oceans fouled with crude! If you thought you were being restricted in your use of federal or even state land, just look at what happens when it is sold off, you are told to stay off, period! And don’t be surprised to find a fracking operation going on right in your back yard fouling your drinking water, or setting it on fire as it comes out of your faucet in some cases! Get smart, quit clicking on click bait and then reposting it. Most of it comes from Veles in Macedonia and Russian sources! I see my friends falling for and sharing click bait all the time. The truth comes with a lot of work! Do not post until you have done the work, or you are working against our democracy, not for it!

 

  1. HR 861 Terminate the Environmental Protection Agency

Introduced Feb 3 2017 by Matt Gaetz [R-FLA]

  1. HR 610 Vouchers for Public Education

                 Also repeals nutrition standards for schools

         Introduced Jan 23, 2017 by Steve king [R-IA]

  1. HR 899 Terminate the Department of Education

         Introduced Feb 7, 2017 by Thomas Massie [R-KY]

  1. HJR 69 Repeal Rule Protecting Wildlife

Introduced Feb 7,2017 by Don Young [R-AK]

Already signed and enacted by Trump Apr 3,2017

  1. HR 370 Another attempt to Repeal Affordable Care Act

INTRODUCED BY TED CRUZ Feb 14.2017 [R-TX]

  1. HR 354 Defund Planned Parenthood (Be aware of what this agency actually does before you make a judgment. They provide health care for woman who cannot receive it elsewhere, and they do not use federal money for abortion services. They also give counsel of all other options other than abortion.)

Introduced Jan 6, 2017 by Diane Back [R-TN]

  1. HR 785 National Right to Work (this one is devastating to the working class … it ALSO applies to Union members) it takes away any clout the working class has now! Which is not much!

Introduced Feb 1, 2017 by Steve King [R-IA]

  1. HR 83 Mobilizing Against Sanctuary Cities Bill

Introduced Jan 3, 2017 by Lou Barletta [R-PA]

  1. HR 147 Criminalizing Abortion (“Prenatal Nondiscrimination Act”)

Introduced Jan 3,2017 by Trent Franks [R-AZ]

  1. HR 808 Sanctions against Iran. These are sanctions that are nonnuclear. Meaning that our current Gov. wants to go outside the nuclear agreement and enact sanctions not agreed to previously, this just an example of strongman tactics. It should be noted that the Iran Nuclear Agreement has been couched by the current administration as an Obama creation! When in fact it was created by many nations over years of deliberation. So when we, in our mighty wisdom, decide to pull out, or try and subvert it, we are waving our middle finger at all of our nation partners in the world, basically telling them to go frack themselves. Way to win friends and influence people!

Introduced Feb 1, 2017 by Peter Roskam [R-IL]